The Prophet (pbuh) asked people to be just and kind. As the supreme judge and arbiter, as the leader of men, as generalissimo [head commander and chief] of a rising power, as a reformer and apostle, he had always to deal with men and their affairs. He had often to deal with mutually inimical and warring tribes when showing justice to one carried the danger of antagonizing the other, and yet he never deviated from the path of justice. In administering justice, he made no distinction between believers and nonbelievers, friends and foes, high and low. From numerous instances reported in the traditions, a few are given below.
Sakhar, a chief of a tribe, had helped Muhammad (pbuh) greatly in the siege of Taif, for which he was naturally obliged to him. Soon after, two charges were brought against Sakhar: one by Mughira of illegal confinement of his (Mughira's) aunt and the other by Banu Salim of forcible occupation of his spring by Sakhar. In both cases, he decided against Sakhar and made him undo the wrong. [Abu Dawud]
Abdullah Bin Sahal, a companion, was deputized to collect rent from Jews of Khaibar. His cousin Mahisa accompanied him but, on reaching Khaibar, they had separated. Abdullah was waylaid and done to death. Mahisa reported this tragedy to the Prophet (pbuh) but as there were no eye-witnesses to identify the guilty, he did not say anything to the Jews and paid the blood-money out of the state revenues. [Sahih Bukhari]
A woman of the Makhzoom family with good connections was found guilty of theft. For the prestige of the Quraish, some prominent people including Asmaa Bin Zaid interceded to save her from punishment. The Prophet (pbuh) refused to condone the crime and expressed displeasure saying,
"Many a community ruined itself in the past as they only punished the poor and ignored the offences of the exalted. By Allah, if Muhammad's (My) daughter Fatima would have committed theft, her hand would have been severed."[Sahih Bukhari]
The Jews, in spite of their hostility to the Prophet (pbuh), were so impressed by his impartiality and sense of justice that they used to bring their cases to him, and he decided them according to Jewish law. [Abu Dawud]
Once, while he was distributing the spoils of war, people flocked around him and one man almost fell upon him. He pushed the men with a stick causing a slight abrasion. He was so sorry about this that he told the man that he could have his revenge, but the man said, "O messenger of Allah, I forgive you." [Abu Dawud]
In his fatal illness, the Prophet (pbuh) proclaimed in a concourse assembled at his house that if he owed anything to anyone the person concerned could claim it; if he had ever hurt anyone's person, honour or property, he could have his price while he was yet in this world. A hush fell on the crowd. One man came forward to claim a few dirhams which were paid at once. [Ibn Hisham]
by Athar Husain
An excerpt from the book entitled "The Message of Mohammad," by Athar Husain.
في مبدأ حياة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بعد البعثة
A khutbah by late Muhammad Saalih Al `Uthaimeen
1) The early Muslims.
2) The Prophet calls his tribe and family to Islam.
3) Quraish harasses the Prophet.
4) The death of Khadijah and Abu Taalib.
5) The harassment of the people of Ta’if.
6) The Ansaar (residence of Madinah) embrace Islam, and the message of Islam spreads.
Muhammad (s.a.a.w.) preached to the people to trust in Allah (swt). His whole life was a sublime example of the precept. In the loneliness of Makkah, in the midst of persecution and danger, in adversity and tribulations, and in the thick of enemies in the battles of Uhud and Hunain, complete faith and trust in Allah (swt) appears as the dominant feature in his life. However great the danger that confronted him, he never lost hope and never allowed himself to be unduly agitated. Abu Talib knew the feelings of the Quraish when the Prophet (s.a.a.w.) started his mission. He also knew the lengths to which the Quraish could go, and requested the Prophet (s.a.a.w.) to abandon his mission, but the latter calmly replied,
"Dear uncle, do not go by my loneliness. Truth will not go unsupported for long. The whole of Arabia and beyond will one day espouse its cause." [Ibn Hisham, Sirat-ur-Rasul]
Allah T'ala says in the Holy Quran:
وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ صَوَّرْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلآئِكَةِ اسْجُدُواْ لآدَمَ فَسَجَدُواْ إِلاَّ إِبْلِيسَ لَمْ يَكُن مِّنَ السَّاجِدِينَ
قَالَ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَلاَّ تَسْجُدَ إِذْ أَمَرْتُكَ قَالَ أَنَاْ خَيْرٌ مِّنْهُ خَلَقْتَنِي مِن نَّارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِن طِينٍ
قَالَ فَاهْبِطْ مِنْهَا فَمَا يَكُونُ لَكَ أَن تَتَكَبَّرَ فِيهَا فَاخْرُجْ إِنَّكَ مِنَ الصَّاغِرِينَ
Seeking Permission to enter by telling one's Name
أن يقول : فلان ، فيسمي نفسه بما يعرف به من اسم أَوْ كنيةوكراهة قوله : « أنا » ونحوها
 عن أنس في حديثه المشهور في الإسراءِ ، قَالَ : قَالَ رسول الله : « ثُمَّ صَعَدَ بي جِبْريلُ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا فَاسْتَفْتَحَ ، فقِيلَ : مَنْ هذَا ؟ قَالَ : جِبْريلُ ، قِيلَ : وَمَنْ مَعَكَ ؟ قَالَ : مُحَمَّدٌ ، ثُمَّ صَعَدَ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ الثَّانِيَةِ وَالثَّالِثَةِ وَالرَّابِعَةِ وَسَائِرِهنَّ وَيُقَالُ فِي بَابِ كُلِّ سَمَاءٍ : مَنْ هَذَا ؟ فَيَقُولُ : جِبْريلُ » . متفقٌ عَلَيْهِِ . في هذا الحديث : أن المستأذن يسمي نفسه باسمه المعروف ، إذا قيل : من هذا ؟
|874. Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported in the course of his famous Hadith pertaining to Al-Isra' (the Ascension) that Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "Then Jibril (Gabriel) ascended along with me to the nearest heaven and requested for the gate to be opened. He was asked: 'Who is there?' He replied: 'Jibril.' He was asked: 'Who is with you?' He said: 'Muhammad.' Then he ascended to the second heaven and requested for the opening of the gate. He was asked: 'Who is there?' He said: 'Jibril.' He was asked: 'Who is with you?' He replied: 'Muhammad.' In the same way he ascended to the third, fourth and all the heavens (i.e., until the seventh). At all of the gates he was asked: 'Who is there?' He replied: Jibril."'|
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim]
 وعن أَبي ذرٍّ قال : خَرَجْتُ لَيْلَةً مِنَ اللَّيَالِي فَإذَا رسول الله يَمْشِي وَحْدَهُ ، فَجَعَلْتُ أمْشِي فِي ظلِّ القمَرِ ، فَالْتَفَتَ فَرَآنِي ، فَقال : « مَنْ هَذَا ؟ » فقلتُ : أَبُو ذَرٍّ . متفقٌ عَلَيْهِ . أجاب أبو ذرّ بما اشتهر به من كنيته ، لأنه بها أعرف منها باسمه .
|875. Abu Dharr (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I stepped out one night and saw Messenger of Allah (PBUH) walking by himself. I began to walk in the moonlit night. He turned round and saw me and asked, "Who is there?" I replied: "Abu Dharr."|
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
| وعن أُمِّ هانئ رضي الله عنها ، قالت : أتيتُ النَّبيَّ وَهُوَ يَغْتَسِلُ وَفَاطِمَةُ تَسْتُرُهُ ، فَقَالَ : « مَنْ هذِهِ ؟ » فقلتُ : أنا أُمُّ هَانِئٍ . متفقٌ عَلَيْهِ . أجابت أم هانيء بكنيتها لشهرتها بذلك . ووجه الدلالة من الحديثين تقريره على ذلك .|
|876. Umm Hani (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: I went to the Prophet (PBUH) who was taking a bath while Fatimah was screening him. He asked, "Who is there?" I replied: "I am Umm Hani."|
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
 وعن جابر قال : أتَيْتُ النبيَّ فَدَقَقْتُ البَابَ ، فَقَالَ : « مَنْ ذَا ؟ » فَقُلتُ : أَنَا ، فَقَالَ : « أنَا ، أنَا ! » كَأنَّهُ كَرِهَهَا . متفقٌ عَلَيْهِ . في هذا الحديث : أن دق الباب بقوم مقام الاستئذان . وفيه : كراهة قول المستأذن : أنا ، ومثله : إنسان ، أو شخص أو صديق لعدم حصول غرض السائل بذلك .
|877. Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: I went to the Prophet (PBUH) and knocked at the door (to seek permission). He asked, "Who is there?" I said: "I". He repeated, " I, I?!" as if he disliked it.|
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: At the doorstep, the visitor should disclose his identity to the host. Secondly, to knock at the door or to ring the door-bell is tantamount to seeking permission to enter the house. When the host comes out, the visitor should first offer him As-Salam.